Slide 2)  Emizet François Kisangani, and F. Scott Bobb. Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 3rd ed. (Lanham; Toronto; Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press, 2010), p. 52.

Slide 3)  Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja. The Congo from Leopold to Kabila. (London and New York: Zed Books, 2002), p. 5.

Slides 4-5) Kisangani, p. lxii.

Slide 6)  John James Quinn. Global Geopolitical Power and African Political and Economic Institutions. (London: Lexington Books, 2016), p. 40.