State’s Significance to Migration

In reference to each state that was a part of the Wichita’s migration pattern, each state within itself presents unique attributes and resources that made migration possible.

StateRelevance in Reference to Native AmericansSource
KansasFor a millennium, the land that is currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541.Official Government Site, State of Kansas
OklahomaThe Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The origin of Texas's name is from the word "Tejas," which means "friends" in the Caddo language.Official Government Site, State of Texas
TexasThe state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people." It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State," in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on the choicest pieces of land before the official opening date and the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which opened the door for white settlement in America's Indian Territory.Official Government Site, State of Oklahoma

Major Natural Resources: Mountains and Rivers

State of Kansas:

The Arkansas River

State of Oklahoma

The Wichita Mountains

State of Texas

The Brazos River
The Northern Frontier
The Red River

¹ Kreidler, Tai. “Tales of Texoma: Episodes in the History of the Red River Border.” Wichita Falls: Midwestern State University Press,  2005.
² Newcomb Jr., William W. “The People Called Wichita.” Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series, 1976.
³ “Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge.” Tulsa Audubon Society.

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